Fire Worship  

Posted by Stella Clark

Fire Worship Image
Worship or deification of fire (also pyrodulia, pyrolatry or pyrolatria) is known from various religions. Fire has been an important part of human culture since the Lower Paleolithic. The earliest known traces of controlled fire were found at Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel and dated to an age of 790,000 years, and religious or animist notions connected to fire must be assumed to reach back to such early pre-Homo sapiens times. In the animal kingdom, the controlled use of fire is restricted to human species. As fire has also destructive capabilities, the worshipping of fire is necessarily ambiguous. This is indicated in proverbs such as "Fire is a good servant but a bad master".

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Amurru  

Posted by Stella Clark

Amurru Cover
Amurru and Martu are names given in Akkadian and Sumerian texts to the god of the Amorite/Amurru people, often forming part of personal names. He is sometimes called Ilu Amurru. He was the patron god of the Mesopotamian city of Ninab, whose exact location is unknown.

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The Sphinx  

Posted by Stella Clark

The Sphinx Image
The Sphinx is closely related to the Greek legend of OEdipus. To each who passed her lair the Sphinx addressed the question, "What animal is it that in the morning goes on four feet, at noon on two feet, and in the evening on three feet?" Those who failed to answer her riddle she destroyed. OEdipus declared the answer to be man himself, who in childhood crawled upon his hands and knees, in manhood stood erect, and in old age shuffled along supporting himself by a staff. There is still another answer to the riddle of the sphinx, an answer best revealed by a consideration of the Pythagorean values of numbers. The 4, the 2, and the 3 produce the sum of 9, which is the natural number of man and also of the lower worlds. The 4 represents the ignorant man, the 2 the intellectual man, and the 3 the spiritual man. Infant humanity walks on four legs, evolving humanity on two legs, and to the power of his own mind the redeemed and illumined magus adds the staff of wisdom. The sphinx is therefore the mystery of Nature, the embodiment of the secret doctrine, and all who cannot solve her riddle perish. To pass the sphinx is to attain personal immortality.

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Goddess Renenet Done  

Posted by Stella Clark

Goddess Renenet Done Image
"RENENET" ("SHE WHO GIVES REN") IS AN EGYPTIAN GODDESS OF GREAT POWER WHO, IN ANCIENT TIMES, GAVE NEWBORN BABIES THE GIFT OF THEIR TRUE NAMES ("REN"). THE NAME SHE BESTOWED WAS AN ASPECT OF THE ETERNAL SOUL, AND NOT ONLY DOES "RENENET " FEED THE NEWBORN INFANT AND NAME THE CHILD, BUT SHE WILL ALSO ATTEND TO THEM AFTER DEATH AND PROTECT THE SECRET NAME TO ENABLE ETERNAL SURVIVAL OF THE SOUL.

SHE WAS BOTH A GODDESS ASSOCIATED WITH MOTHERHOOD AND THE TUTELARY DEITY OF THE" PHARAOH". SHE WAS ALSO CONSIDERED THE SOURCE OF NOURISHMENT, THUS A GODDESS OF THE HARVEST. SHE WAS DEPICTED AS A GODDESS OF RICHES AND GOOD FORTUNE, AND OFFERINGS WERE MADE TO HER DURING HARVEST TIME. HER GAZE WAS SAID TO HAVE THE POWER TO VANQUISH ALL ENEMIES AND ALSO TO ENSURE THE FERTILITY OF THE CROPS AND THE BOUNTY OF THE HARVEST.

"RENENET" IS SOMETIMES DEPICTED IN THE FORM OF A SNAKE- HEADED WOMAN SUCKLING A CHILD, THE TWO PLUMES ON HER HEAD INDICATE THAT SHE WAS RECOGNIZED BOTH IN UPPER AND LOWER EGYPT. IN THE "AFTERLIFE," SHE WAS SEEN AS A FIRE-BREATHING COBRA WHO WAS thE PROTECTOR OF THE CLOTHING WORN BY THE PHARAOH IN THE UNDERWORLD, AND THUS THOUGHT TO INSTILL FEAR IN HIS ENEMIES. SHE WAS ASSOCIATED WITH THE MAGICAL PROPERTIES BELIEVED TO INHERE IN LINEN BANDAGES; HENCE, SHE WAS ALSO LINKED TO MUMMY BANDAGES, OFFERING THEM TO THE DEAD.

SHE HAD AN IMPORTANT CULT CENTER IN THE FERTILE "FAIYUM" REGION, WHERE SHE WAS CLOSELY ASSOCIATED WITH THE LOCAL CROCODILE GOD SOBEK. IN THE GRECO-ROMAN PERIOD SHE WAS ALSO WORSHIPPED AS THE GODDESS, "HERMOUTHIS, "AND IT WAS IN THIS FORM SHE CAME TO BE COMBINED WITH "ISIS."

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Goddess Coventina  

Posted by Stella Clark

Goddess Coventina Image
COVENTINA IS A CELTIC GODDESS OF HEALING, A RIVER DEITY, THE PERSONIFIED SPIRIT OF A SPRING THAT WELLED UP OUT OF THE GROUND. SHE IS CONNECTED TO HEALING AND PROPHECY AS WELL AS THE EBB AND FLOW OF TIME. ALTHOUGH LITTLE IS KNOWN ABOUT HER UNTIL THE PERIOD OF THE ROMAN OCCUPATION, WE DO KNOW THAT AT ONE TIME, COVENTINA WAS WORSHIPED AS THE QUEEN OF THE RIVER GODDESSES. IN FACT, SHE IS USUALLY ASSOCIATED WITH ALL OF THE RUNNING WATERS,PARTICULARLY AREAS OF LAND WHERE THE WATER DRAINS OFF AND ENTERS INTO THE EARTH; THE CELTS BELIEVED THAT THE POWER OF THE RIVER DEITY COULD BE SEEN AND ITS ENERGY MORE KEENLY FELT.

HER FOLLOWERS TOSSED COINS AND OTHER SACRED OBJECTS--POTTERY, JEWELRY, BELLS--INTO THE WELL AS AN OFFERING FOR HER BLESSING. IN ONE WELL, A HUMAN SKULL WAS FOUND. DURING THE CRUSADES, MANY EUROPEAN WELLS WERE RE-DEDICATED TO SAINTS. IT WAS AT THIS TIME THAT THE CELTIC AND ROMAN WELLS DEDICATED TO COVENTINA WERE CONVERTED INTO "WISHING WELLS", AND THE PREVIOUS ROMAN PRACTICE OF THROWING SACRIFICED ANIMALS INTO THE WELL TO WIN HER FAVOR WE REPLACED WITH THE TOSSING OF COINS AND FLOATING VOTIVE CANDLES TO ELICIT GOOD LUCK.

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Goddess Adriamhilala  

Posted by Stella Clark

Goddess Adriamhilala Image
Adriamhilala is a creator goddess from Madagascar. She has also been called "The Queen of Heaven". The ancients believed that it was She who first gave humankind their flesh and their form; other deities are credited with supplying the rest. The following story relates how Adriamhilala offered mankind a choice: an eternal, renewable life or just the one life.

The very first people were told about birth and death and were then given a choice about how they would like to end. They could either choose to grow like the banana palm which grows shoots that live on for future generations. In this scenerio, humans would have children that similarly would live on after they had died themselves. In the other option, they could become like the Moon who dies each month and is then reborn each month. In other words, they would be able to live forever, but would have no children. We humans chose to be like the banana.

"JOURNAL EXERCISE:"

"HOW DO I MAKE MY EXPERIENCES HERE MORE MEANINGFUL? HOW MAY I BEST EXPRESS AND FULFILL MY LIFE PURPOSE?"

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Tengri  

Posted by Stella Clark

Tengri Cover
Tengri, literally "sky" or "heaven", is one of the names for the primary one god in the old Turkic and Mongolic religion named Tengriism. It is analogous with the early Chinese concept of Tianli in Western Zhou Dynasty (11th century BC to 8th century BC), and later Daoist coinage of (with "blue" and "qi", i.e., "blue heaven") and derived Confucian concept of Tianli. The four direction symbols of Blue Dragon (East), White Tiger (West), Red Phoenix (South), Black Snake-Turtle (North) in Chinese cosmology is also analogous with the four direction symbol used in Tengriism. There are no official symbols of Tengriism, however the symbol of the World Tree and the four directions symbol are common. It is often confused with a sun-worshipping religion, but the sun is merely a symbol of Tengri. A dramatic pyramidal mountain peak, between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, is called "Khan Tengri".

The ancient Turks believed that 17 Deities ruled the Universe, whilst the Mongols counted 99. From ancient and medieval sources (Turkish, Mongolian, Chinese, Byzantine, Arab and Persian) we learn that in both the Turkic and Mongolian Pantheons superiority belonged to Tengri. The various Turkic peoples had similar names for the Sky God: Tatar - Tengri; Altai - Tengri; Turks - Tanri; Khakases - Tigir; Chuvash - Tura; Yakuts - Tangara; Karachai-Balkars - Teyri; Kumyks - Tengiri, Mongols - Tengeri. The Turks and Mongols believed that all existence in the Universe was attributed to Tengri, the Sky God. It was Tengri who ruled the fate of entire nations and their rulers, the Khagans. The Orkhon Stone contains the following inscription: "All human sons are born to die in time, as determined by Tengri." Tengri was worshipped by lifting one’s hands upwards and bowing. Prayers to Tengri were only for health and assistance in good deeds. Tengri later received a Persian name (Khodai) and missionaries attempted to identify him with the Christian God or the Islamic Allah, in order to win converts. However, the great Sky God, Tengri became neither God, nor Allah.

Yer (Earth-Spirit) and Tengri (Sky-Spirit) existed in harmony and complemented each other. The Earth gave man a material shell, but his soul (Kut) was given at birth by Tengri who took it back after death. There is an element of dualism here, but Tengri reinged supreme. It is known from Chinese sources that the ancient Turks believed that Tengri determined man’s longevity. Tengri justly rewarded and punished. Expressions such: ‘Tengri jarlykasyn’ (may Tengri reward you), ‘Kuk sukkan’ (damned by the Sky) and ‘Kuk sugar’ (the sky will damn) are heard even today. Tengri gave the Khagans (Khans) wisdom and authority. We read on the monument honouring Bilge-Khagan: "After the death of my father, at the will of Turkic Tengri and sacred Turkic Yer-Sub (Earth-Water), I became Khan... Tengri who gives the states (to Khans), made me Khagan, it should be known, so that the name and glory of the Turkish people would not disappear." In the monument honouring Kul-Tegin, we read: "Tengri, who rules my father, Ilterish-Khagan, and my mother, Ilbilgya-Katun, from above, ennobled them... As Tengri gave them strength, the army of Khagan, my father, was like a wolf and his enemies like sheep."1 On the 8-9th century stone carvings, found on the banks of the Orkhon and Tola rivers, in Altai and in Tuva, the Turkic Khans-Batyrs (mighty Heroes) left to their descendants these words: "… For the Turkic people I did not sleep nights and days, did not rest... Let not the Turkic people vanish! Let not the name and glory of the Turkic people perish!"

After a Khagan ascended to the throne, he was referred to as a son of Tengri, for it was Tengri who had given the Khagan to his people and it was He that punished those who turned against their ruler, "... instructing the Khagan, who attends to state and military affairs."2 A man became Khagan, and lived under Tengri's protection only for as long as he himself lived by Tengri's laws. During the election of a Khagan, the Beks felt that Tengri Himself had determined the outcome. A legitimate Khan was therefore looked upon as "Tengri-like... begotten by Tengri... a wise Turkic Khagan". A Khagan (Khan) should be brave, clever, honourable, vigorous, fair, and have the virtues of a Bozkurt (wolf). With these qualities, a Khagan could unify Turkic tribes into a single nation. Ancient Turkic inscriptions refer to punishments by Tengri of individuals and tribes. Oath breakers were subject to heavy punishment, as was disobedience to the Khagan. However, Tengri could also punish the Khagan. Chinese chronicles describe a case where one Khagan decided not to keep his promise to give his daughter as a wife to the emperor of the Northern Chow dynasty. He later kept his original oath out of fear of punishment. If the Khagan ruled improperly, it was said that it was Tengri who caused him to lose his authority, via the will of the people. Divine punishment followed transgression during one's lifetime and Tengri's power over man ended after his death.

Timing and Protocol of Sacrifices to Great Kuk Tengri


The Kuk-Tengri (Blue Sky) is a non-material spiritual Sky, the words ‘Tengri’ and ‘Sky’ being synonymous. The epithet ‘Kuk’ was also given to some animals, such as horse (kuk at), ram (kuk teke), bull (kuk ugez), deer (kuk bolan), dog (kuk et), wolf (kuk bure). This did not describe the animal's colour, but rather it’s divine origin.

Chinese references to Kuk Tengri rituals are few. The Choushu Chronicles state: "In the 5th month, the Turks usually slaughter sheep and horses as a sacrifice to Tengri." Another record adds: "Each year the Khagan leads nobles to the cave of his predecessors with offerings... to Tengri’.4 The ancient Turkic ritual of sacrifice to Great Kuk Tengri is still preserved among the Altai peoples. Likewise, Khakases organise the annual prayer to Tengri in the middle of June. This coincides with the time of prayer recorded by the Chinese sources, which in the modern calendar falls between the 5th and 10th of June. Tatars also preserve the celebration at the beginning of summer, but only in a truncated form and under the name Saban-Tui. The Buryats living in Transbaikalia and Siberia use the name Subarkhan. The epithet of the deity, ‘Kuk Tengri’ (Blue Sky) is a distinctive aspect of ancient Turkic and Mongolian ritual terminology, carried through the centuries and preserved by the Altai.5 For almost 1,500 years (2nd c. BC to 14th c. AD) the Turkic kingdoms organised annual national sacrifices to Tengri, lead by the Khagan himself. In the beginning of summer, at a time determined by the Khagan, the tribal leaders (Beks), important warlords and Noyons would gather in the Horde (capital). Together with the Khagan (Khan) they would go to the sacred mountain to sacrifice a colt to Tengri. Thousands of people from nearby auls (villages) and cities would gather at sacred mountains, valleys, rivers, lakes and springs simultaneously and tens of thousands of fires would be lit on these sacred grounds, prior to the sacrifice of horses and sheep. Sacrifices ended with common celebratory feasts and competitions.

The rituals of the ancient Turkic peoples had various functions and consequently they varied. Some were accompanied by sacrifice, whilst others were limited to prayer. The national ritual sacrifices were meant to reconstruct the most sacred point in the Universe, the Cosmic Tree. The ritual was conducted on a spring morning on a mountain between four sacred birches, symbolising the four points of the compass. A large sacred fire was lit in the East. The East symbolised the beginning of space and time and became a starting point in the creation of the world. Then, whilst walking in the direction of the sun, each mountain and river were honoured by invoking their names. The symbolic Universe was filled with objects, in imitation of the Cosmos, and participants circled the periphery of this ritual space. At the beginning, a rope was tied to the eastern birch. Whilst circling, it was stretched around the four birches, replicating an enclosed space with a boundary, as a sign of stability. The same symbolism defined the forms of many ritual structures, i.e., the ‘memorial fences’, of the ancient Turks. In mythological tradition the world is reliable if the same coordinates coincide for all its spheres. It becomes repeatable, reproducible and as a consequence, controllable by humanity.

L.P. Potapov studied the ancient beliefs of the Turks for more than a half-century in the Altai. He collected, recorded and preserved valuable materials about worship and sacrifices to Tengri by the Kachines and Beltirs, commonly called Khakases today.

Prayer was organised on the top of a specific mountain, next to a sacred birch (bai kaen). If no naturally growing birch was there, it was dug out from elsewhere with the roots, brought here and replanted. The Abakanian Kachines (Troyakov, Ulus) organised worship to Tengri on a mountain called Saksor. The inhabitants of various seoks (localities where particular clans lived) gathered there. The ceremony was sponsored by only one seok, in accordance with an agreement reached at a previous gathering. Neither women, nor girls were permitted to participate and even female domestic animals could not be present. The sacrificial lambs were mostly white males, preferably with a black face. Three to 15 were sacrificed, depending on the number of participants who had brought animals. Men coming to the ritual attached two ribbons, white and blue, to their headdress. After their arrival on the mountain the ribbons were removed, fumigated with a medicinal herb (yerben od) and attached to the branches of the sacred birch.

This ritual did not involve a Shaman (Kam), but was led by an old man who knew The Algys (the words of a text called Algyschan Kizi). He was dressed in felt clothes and wore a high headdress. A sacred fire had been lit some distance behind the western birch. Between it and the birch was a little table, made from branches. Cups, dishes and spoons made from bark were placed upon it. The ritual started with an appeal to the sacred birch and utensils. Simultaneously the procession encircled the birch three times. The Algyschan Kizi would make appeals to the sacred birch, whilst followers splashed wine and milk onto it. After a third circle, they stopped, drank one sip of the remaining wine and milk from the cups and slaughtered the lambs. This was done the ancient way, Osot Sogarcha, where the animal was rolled onto its back, a hole made in the thorax, before a hand plunged through the incision to rip out the aorta. The blood could not be spilled onto the ground during the ritual slaughter. The meat was then cooked and the broth with pieces of meat was put on the little table, together with wine, milk and cheese. Another procession followed, which again circled the birch three times, whilst participants carried the table. After each round, the Algyschan Kizi threw pieces of meat, cheese and sprayed wine and milk over the tree, whilst asking Tengri for health. Simultaneously everybody raised their hands to the sky, bowed and exclaimed: 'Tengre! Tengre!' With the last circle around the sacred birch the prayer ended and the ritual meal began. After the meal, all remaining meat, bones and the skin of the sacrificed lamb, including the head and legs, were burnt in the sacred fire. Before departure they agreed which seok would sponsor the following year's ritual. After the descent from the mountain, the games and entertainment began.

The Tengri rutual of the Beltirs had some specific features. It was organised by the Beltirs in the Teya River basin. The supplier of the sacrificial lamb braided an eight-yard rope and bought a dead eagle or bercut. The bird was plucked before the ceremony and those that would attend took feathers, from which they made feather hat-bands (ul durbe). Adult sons living with their parents did not wear hat-bands. In addition to feathers, red, black and white ribbons were added to the hat-bands. The feathers and the ribbons alternated between facing up and down. This attractive band was worn over the headdress at the time of departure for the ceremony, after performing an Alas (fumigation with ‘yerben’ grass). On the day of the ceremony, the man who provided the sacrificial animal left home early. He was called Tutchan Kizi and had to be the first to arrive at the site to light a sacred fire. Reaching the top of the mountain, he approached the four birches, unsaddled his horse, spread shabrack (kichim) on the site and placed his headdress on it. Then using only flint, he started a fire near the birches. Not far from the main fire (ulug ot) was a second, smaller fire (kichi ot). The first fire was intended for burning the sacrificial animal, the second for cooking the meat of another eight lambs, slaughtered for the ritual meal. Only men were allowed to participate, who removed their hats on arrival and placed them on the shabrack, next to that of the Tutchan Kizi.

Climbing the mountain was possible only on colts or geldings. Those arriving on a mare, left it at the base of the mountain and ascended by foot, or joined some other rider. The men sat to the south of the small fire and drank araka, before slaughtering the lambs. The sacrificial lamb was slaughtered the ancient way, the others as per usual, by slitting the throat. The sacrificial lamb’s meat was cooked on the main fire, the others on the smaller one. The cooked meat of the sacrifice was placed in a separate wooden dish (tepsi), and the meat of the other eight lambs placed in another. During cooking one of the Beltirs, who knew the words of the Tengri prayer, approached the pile of headdresses (uldurbe) and attached them to a long rope (chilpag). He braided the rope with the ul durbe bands, then went to the opposite (eastern) sacred birch and attached the end of the rope to it. Then, holding in his hands the other end of the rope, he went southwards for its full length. Behind the man with the chilpag (Chilpag Tutchan Kizi) there were two Beltirs with tepsi. The leader made a prayer to Tengri, whilst a man standing behind him sprinkled sacrificial wine towards the Sky with a bark spoon. The men holding dishes with boiling meat extended their hands and the man with the chilpag rope raised and waved it. The old man leading the prayer called the names of prominent mountains and rivers, turning towards the four directions, each time raising boiled meat, waving the chilpag, sprinkling wine and bowing. After the ritual, they ate lamb, drank araka and burnt the meat of the sacrificed lamb on the first fire, together with its entrails, skin and bones, until nothing remained. The chilpag rope was tied to all four birches. The plucked bird was left to dry on the birch, where the chilpag had been tied. After the prayer, the men discussed who would supply the sacrificial lamb and start the fire the following year. When a man was chosen, a large wooden cup of araka was offered to him. The ceremony ended before sunset.

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Goddess Anapel  

Posted by Stella Clark

Goddess Anapel Image
"ANAPEL" IS THE SIBERIAN GODDESS OF REINCARNATION AND BIRTH; SHE IS WORSHIPPED BY THE KORYAK PEOPLE OF SIBERIA. HER NAME MEANS "LITTLE GRANDMOTHER"." SHE IS THE SOVEREIGN OF ORIGINS AND NEW BEGINNINGS; HENCE, SHE PRESIDES OVER BIRTH AND REINCARNATION. SHE IS WORSHIPPED AT CEREMONIES THAT FOLLOW THE BIRTH OF A NEW CHILD. IN HER ROLE AS FATE AND DESTINY SHE CHOOSES THE BODY AND LIFE PATH EACH SOUL WILL REINCARNATE INTO.

ACCORDING TO CUSTOM, ON THE DAY WHEN A CHILD IS BORN, THE FATHER TIES A STONE ON A STRING AND ATTACHES IT TO A STICK. THEN, HOLDING THE STICK HORIZONTAL TO THE GROUND, HE RECITES ALL THE NAMES OF HIS AND HIS WIFE'S DEAD ANCESTORS. WHEN ANAPEL MAKES THE STONE SWING AT ONE OF THE NAMES, THEY KNOW THAT THE CHILD IS THE REINCARNATION OF THAT RELATIVE.

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Toutatis  

Posted by Stella Clark

Toutatis Cover
Toutatis or Teutates was a Celtic god worshipped in ancient Gaul and Britain. On the basis of his name's etymology, he has been widely interpreted to be a tribal protector. Today, he is best known under the name Toutatis through the Gaulish catchphrase "By Toutatis!", invented for the Asterix comics by Goscinny and Uderzo. The spelling Toutatis, however, is authentic and attested by about ten ancient inscriptions. Under the spelling Teutates, the god is also known from a passage in Lucan.

Teutates is above all other things a teacher, the god who bestowed upon humanity all of its useful skills. He is the patron of crafts and sciences, a lover of knowledge and study and a staunch defender of the progress of society. The destruction of the Gaulish culture at the hands of Rome was an especially great blow for him, as he had helped to nurture and create much of said culture. Still, he stands as protector for all of his people and teaches those few remaining with infinite care and wisdom.

When Rome conquered Gaul and began absorbing the foreign religion into its own, they equated Teutates with Hermes and began determinedly destroying every reference to him that did not fit this interpretation. This was especially galling because, although Hermes is a patron of commerce and a teacher of mankind, he is also a trickster and a thief, neither qualities that Teutates espouses. The two gods seldom make contact, but there is little doubt that Teutates would love to punish the God of Thieves sorely for his part in destroying the culture he had so carefully built.

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Bernardo Carpio  

Posted by Stella Clark

Bernardo Carpio Cover
Bernardo Carpio is a legendary figure in Philippine Mythology who is said to be the cause of earthquakes. There are numerous versions of this tale. Some versions say Bernardo Carpio is a giant, as supported by the enormous footsteps he has reputedly left behind in the mountains of Montalban. Others say he was the size of an ordinary man. However, all versions agree he had a strength that was similar to that of Hercules.

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Aeeas And The Harpies  

Posted by Stella Clark

Aeeas And The Harpies Cover
They were described by the Greeks as being composite, with the heads of maidens and the bodies of birds. The wings of the harpies were composed of metal and their flight was accompanied by a terrible clanging noise. During his wanderings, AEneas, the Trojan hero, landed on the island of the harpies, where he and his followers vainly battled with these monsters. One of the harpies perched upon a cliff and there prophesied to AEneas that his attack upon them would bring dire calamity to the Trojans.

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Goddess Astghik  

Posted by Stella Clark

Goddess Astghik Image
AMONG ALL OF THE SEMETIC DEITIES WHICH ARE FOUND IN THE ARMENIAN PANTHEON, NONE HAS EVER ATTAINED THE IMPORTANCE OF "ASTGHIK", THE ARMENIAN GODDESS OF LOVE. AS THE LOVE GODDESS, SHE CORRESPONDS WITH THE GREEK, APHRODITE. ASTGHIK IS A DEITY OF MAIDENLY BEAUTY AND LOVE AS WELL AS WELL AS A RULER OF WATER SOURCES AND SPRINGS. THE ROSE IS HER FAVORITE FLOWER, AND IT IS SAID THAT SHE SPREADS HER LOVE AND FERTILITY BY SPRINKLING ROSE WATER ACROSS THE LAND. THE DOVE AMONG ALL OF THE BIRDS IS HER FAVORITE.

SHE WAS THE WIFE OR LOVER OF THE GOD, VAHAGN, THE GOD OF THUNDER AND LIGHTNING, AND IT IS SAID THAT SHE MET WITH HER LOVER IN HER TEMPLE LOCATED IN ASTISHAT. IN STILL ANOTHER TALE, IT SEEMS THAT ASTGHIK WAS IN THE HABIT OF BATHING IN A STREAM EVERY NIGHT. YOUNG MEN FROM A NEARBY VILLAGE, EAGER FOR A GLIMPSE OF THE BEAUTIFUL GODDESS, WOULD LIGHT A BIG FIRE ON A NEARBY HILL. BUT, ASTGHIK, WHO IMMEDIATELY SENSED THEIR PRESENCE, WOULD MODESTLY WRAP HERSELF IN THE MIST.

THE CELEBRATION WHICH HONORS HER IS CALLED VARTAVAR; IT OCCURS IN JUNE. IT IS STILL CELEBRATED IN ARMENIA BY SPRINKLING WATER ON EACH OTHER AND RELEASING DOVES IN HER HONOR. ROSES ARE OFFERED BY HER PETITIONERS. NO ONE IS ALLOWED TO FEEL OFFENDED OR DISPLEASED BY ANY OF THE MISCHIEF DONE ON THIS DAY.

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Sirona Celtic Goddess Of Healing  

Posted by Stella Clark

Sirona Celtic Goddess Of Healing Image
"SIRONA" WAS A CELTIC GODDESS OF HEALING, FERTILITY, AND REGENERATION. SHE WAS OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH WARM, MEDICINAL SPRINGS. HER NAME IS RELATED TO "'STAR'," SO PERHAPS SHE ALSO ASSOCIATED WITH NIGHT AND DARKNESS. HER EMBLEM IS A SNAKE WHICH SYMBOLIZES HER ROLE IN HEALING. AND AS AN EARTH GODDESS, SHE WAS OFTEN DEPICTED FULLY DRAPED AND CROWNED; SHE CARRIES THREE EGGS AND HAS A SNAKE WINDING ABOUT HER ARM. BOTH ARE SYMBOLS OF A CELTIC HEALER.

SHE WAS REVERED IN CONTINENTAL EUROPE AT HOT MEDICINAL SPRINGS AND MINERAL WATERS IN DIVERSE LOCALES LIKE SOUTHERN FRANCE AND GERMANY. INSCRIPTIONS WITH HER NAME SOMETIMES APPEARED ALONG WITH THAT OF HER HUSBAND "GRANNOS", WHICH WAS ANOTHER NAME FOR "APOLLO."

THE SIRONA NATURE TRAIL WAS NAMED IN HER HONOR.



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Inkosazana African Goddess Of Agriculture  

Posted by Stella Clark

Inkosazana African Goddess Of Agriculture Image
"INKOSAZANA" IS THE PERSONIFICATION OF NATURE, THE AFRICAN GODDESS OF AGRICULTURE. SHE IS SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS "NOMKHUBULWANE "AND HER DWELLING PLACE IS IN THE RIVERS AND THE FORESTS SURROUNDING THEM. SHE IS A VERY POPULAR AND MUCH LOVED GODDESS WHO IS KNOWN BY HER PEOPLE AS "LADY HEAVEN" WHO RULES THE CELESTIAL BODIES AND THE LIVES OF WOMEN AND GIRLS. SHE IS ALWAYS YOUNG BECAUSE SHE HAS NOT CHILDREN OF HER OWN. SHE IS RESPONSIBLE PRIMARILY FOR CEREAL GRAINS WHICH IS AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT OF THE ZULU DIET. AND, AS THE RAIN GODDESS, SHE IS OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH RAINBOWS.

IN FACT, SHE CAN MANIFEST AS A RAINBOW, A SNAKE, A MERMAID, A BEAUTIFUL WHITE WOMAN, OR AS THE LIFE-GIVING RAIN, BUT SHE IS NOT COMMONLY SEEN. IT IS SAID THAT THE PRIMITIVE MEN KNEW HER. NO ONE EXISTING AT THE PRESENT TIME EVER SAW HER...OR PERHAPS THEY DID AND KNEW IT NOT. AS THE DEITY OF AGRICULTURE, SHE IS CALLED UPON IN THE "SPRING "TO BRING FERTILITY TO THE LAND; AS THE SENDER OF RAINS FOR THE GROWING CROPS AND PROTECTS THE WOMEN AND GIRLS WHO HOE THE FIELDS, BUT FOR THE SEASON TO GO WELL IT IS NECESSARY WHEN HOEING THE FIELD OF "INKOSAZANA" FOR THE WOMEN TO GET RID OF ANY ILL FEELINGS THEY MAY HAVE TOWARDS OTHERS.

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Greek Goddess Selene  

Posted by Stella Clark

Greek Goddess Selene Cover
SELENE was the Titan goddess of the moon. She was depicted as a woman either riding side saddle on a horse or in a chariot drawn by a pair of winged steeds. Her lunar sphere or crescent was represented as either a crown set upon her head or as the fold of a raised, shining cloak. Sometimes she was said to drive a team of oxen and her lunar crescent was likened to the horns of a bull. Selene's great love was the shepherd prince Endymion. The beautiful boy was granted eternal youth and immortality by Zeus and placed in a state of eternal slumber in a cave near the peak of Lydian Mount Latmos. There his heavenly bride descended to consort with him in the night. Daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia. Sister of Helios (sun) and Eos (dawn). Mother of Pandia by Zeus, and of fifty daughters by Endymion. She rode across the sky in a chariot drawn by two white horses. Also a tutelary deity of magicians. Selene was sometimes identified with Artemis as a moon goddess. She became syncretized with Hekate in later Greek mythology. The Romans equated her with Luna.

By Zeus, she is the mother of Pandia (All-bright) and Ersa (Dew). By Endymion, she is mother of 50 daughters, who represent the 50 lunar months that elapse between each Olympiad. The days of the full and new moon were set aside for her worship.

As the myth goes, Selene saw Endymion, a shepherd, asleep in a cave on Mt. Latmus one night. She fell in love with him, and began to neglect her duties to lie beside him as he slept. In some stories, Zeus grants Endymion perpetual sleep with perpetual youth, so that Selene would resume her duties. In others, Selene herself puts him to sleep.

Selene is often closely identified with Artemis and Hecate, both of whom are moon goddesses as well. It is said that this was the name the Triple Goddess Hecate was honored by when she was in the realm of heaven. Selene is of great importance in magick, spells and enchantments.

A number of other goddesses were also associated with the moon, however, only Selene was represented by the old Greek poets represented as the moon incarnate. Other Greek moon goddesses included Pasiphae, the Leukippides, Eileithyia, Hekate, Artemis, Bendis, and Hera (who sometimes doubled for Selene in the Endymion myth).

Further reading (free e-books):

Francesca De Grandis - Goddess Initiation
Aleister Crowley - Absinthe The Green Goddess
Francesca De Grandis - Be A Goddess

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Grandmother Spider  

Posted by Stella Clark

Grandmother Spider Image
"GRANDMOTHER SPIDER" IS AN IMPORTANT GODDESS AMONGST THE MANY NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBES. THEY CALL HER THE "GREAT TEACHER AND "THE CREATOR OF LIFE". "SHE HAS ALSO BEEN CALLED 'SPIDER WOMAN" WHICH IS A METAPHOR FOR "SHE WHO CREATES FROM A CENTRAL SOURCE. "HER WEBS REPRESENTS THE MATRIX OF OUR SOCIETIES. SHE IS THE GUARDIAN OF EVERYTHING THAT EXISTS ON EARTH AND USES HER MAGICKAL POWER TO WEAVE THE FABRIC OF TIME. ALTHOUGH SHE CAN OCCASIONALLY BE DESTRUCTIVE, SHE IS ALMOST ALWAYS PORTRAYED THE BENEFICENT GODDESS WHO CREATED EVERYTHING THAT THERE IS WITH HER THOUGHTS AND DREAMS. IT IS SHE WHO BROUGHT THE SUN AND THE FIRE; SHE TAUGHT POTTERY, WEAVING, AND THE MAKING OF CEREMONIAL MAGIC. SHE CREATED THE MOON.

HER LEGENDS ARE A PART OF THE CREATION MYTHOLOGY FOR SEVERAL SOUTHWESTERN TRIBES INCLUDING THE HOPI, PUEBLO, AND NAVAJO. ONE MYTH SAYS THAT IN THE BEGINNING OF TIME ONLY TWO BEINGS WERE IN EXISTENCE...TAWA, THE SUN GOD, WHO HELD ALL THE POWERS FROM ABOVE, AND GRANDMOTHER SPIDER, THE EARTH GODDESS, WITH ALL THE POWERS FROM BELOW. IT WAS TAWA WHO IMAGINED ALL OF THE CREATURES OF EARTH AND GRANDMOTHER SPIDER WHO TURNED THESE THOUGHTS INTO LIVING THINGS. AND, FOR EVERY PERSON SHE CREATED, SHE SPUN A FINE LINE OF SPIDER SILK THAT SHE ATTACHED TO THEIR HEADS SO THEY WOULD ALWAYS BE CONNECTED TO HER AND HAVE ACCESS TO HER WISDOM AND HER TEACHINGS. AND FOR AS LONG AS THEY KEPT THE DOORWAY FROM THE TOP OF THEIR HEADS OPEN, TO LET THE SPIDER SILK IN, THEY WOULD BE PROTECTED BY HER.

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Goddess Ngame  

Posted by Stella Clark

Goddess Ngame Image
NGAME is the Akan Goddess of the moon. She is a mother Goddess, who created all things. She is the mother of the sun, and gives birth to each it day so that it may light the sky. She gives life to humans and animals by shooting them with arrows from her moon-shaped bow.

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Dievas  

Posted by Stella Clark

Dievas Cover
Dievas, Latvian Dievs, Prussian Deywis, Yotvingian Deivas was the supreme god in the Baltic mythology and one of the most important deities together with Perkunas. Dievas is a direct successor of the Proto-Indo-European supreme god *Dyeus

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Greek Nymph Adrasteia  

Posted by Stella Clark

Greek Nymph Adrasteia Image
ADRASTEIA (pronounced ad-ras-TIE-uh) is one of the Greek Nymphs. She and her sister Ide were the daughters of Amaltheia, another Nymph, and King Melisseus of Crete. They lived on Mount Ida, and it was to them that the Goddess Rhea came with her baby son Zeus to hide him from his father, Kronos. Adrasteia and Ide hid the baby in a cave and cared for him for a year, feeding him goat's milk and honey. After he had gained his full power, Zeus immortalized his two nurses by placing them in the sky as Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. Adrasteia was renamed as KYNOSOURA, and became Ursa Minor. Her name, which means "not escaping," is also seen as ADRASTEA.

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Saga Norse Goddess Of Prophesy  

Posted by Stella Clark

Saga Norse Goddess Of Prophesy Image
"SAGA" IS THE ANCIENT NORSE GODDESS OF PROPHESY, SACRED POETRY, CHARMS, AND WORDS OF POWER; HER NAME MEANS "SEERESS. "SHE BELONGED TO THE RACE OF GODS CALLED THE AESIR. IT WAS HER ROLE TO TRANSCRIBE AND TO KEEP THE RECORDS OF ALL OF THE WORLDLY EVENTS SO THAT NONE WILL BE FORGOTTEN; SHE IS ALSO PRIVY TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF EVENTS TO COME. SAGA WAS THE DAUGHTER OF THE GOD, HYMER, AND THE GODDESS OF RUNES; SHE WAS THE MOTHER OF TYR BY ODIN. IT HAS BEEN SAID THAT AT ONE TIME SHE WAS ODIN'S BRIDE.

SHE IS KNOWN TO RESIDE IN LARGE HALL THAT IS LOCATED UNDER A RIVER, AND THE WALLS ON ALL FOUR SIDES OF THE HALL ARE SAID TO RIPPLE WITH AN INTOXICATING WATER (MEAD). ON A DAILY BASIS, SAGA AND ODIN ARE SAID TO DRINK HEAVILY OF THESE WATERS OUT OF A PAIR OF GOLDEN GOBLETS.

She is the patroness of seers and writers. She is particularly adept at mixing the mead to relax and inspire both Gods and mortals with poetic insight. Invoke Saga if your creative juices need to be jump started. Scrolls and mead are sacred to Her.

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Coatlicue Aztec Great Goddess  

Posted by Stella Clark

Coatlicue Aztec Great Goddess Image
COATLICUE IS THE AZTEC GREAT GODDESS OF LIFE, DEATH, AND REBIRTH. HER NAME MEANS SERPENT'S SKIRT FOR SHE OFTEN WEARS A SKIRT OF SNAKES AND A NECKLASS MADE OF SKULLS. IT IS SHE WHO CREATED ALL BEING, ALL LIFE, AND JUST AS SURELY AS IT WAS CREATED, SHE TAKES EACH LIFE BACK INTO HERSELF, INTO THE FOLDS OF HER SERPENT SKIRT. SHE PROVIDES LIFE FROM HER WOMB AND THE HORROR OF THE GRAVE FROM HER HEART.HER TALONED HANDS, BALLED INTO TIGHT FISTS, ARE REALLY THE FANGED HEADS OF LETHAL CORAL SNAKES. SHE IS BOTH NURTURING AND DEVOURING. SHE DWELLS BETWEEN LIFE AND DEATH.

COATLICUE WAS THE OLD GODDESS OF THE EARTH; SHE WAS THE MOTHER OF THE GODS AS WELL AS THE GRANDMOTHER OF THE RACE OF MAN. SHE IS DESCRIBED AS THE EARTH BENEATH OUR FEET AND THE GREAT LADY WHO MAKES THE MAIZE GROW. OFTEN, WE FIND HER PORTRAYED AS A DARK AND UGLY CRONE. SHE HAD MANY CHILDREN...COYOLXAUHQUI (THE MOON) AND THE CENTZON HUILZNAHUS (THE 400 STARS OF THE SOUTHERN SKY). HER HUSBAND WAS MIXCOATL, THE CLOUD SERPENT AND THE GOD OF THE CHASE. ONE DAY, WHILE SHE WAS SLEEPING, A BALL OF FEATHERS FELL INTO THE TEMPLE AND BLEW UP UNDER HER SKIRT, MAGICALLY IMPREGNATING HER. HER CHILDREN, ESPECIALLY COYOLXAUHQUI, WERE OUTRAGED BECAUSE THEY FELT THAT THEIR MOTHER HAD BROUGHT A GREAT DISHONOR TO THE FAMILY. LED IN A REBELLION BY COYOLXAUHQUI, THEY TRIED TO COATLICUE, BUT THE GREAT WAR GOD, HUITZILOPOCHTLI EMERGED FULL FORMED AND ARMED FROM HIS MOTHER'S SHOULDERS AND SLEW MANY OF HIS SIBLINGS. IT IS SAID THAT HE THEN CUT OFF COYOLXAUHQUI'S HEAD AND TOSSED INTO THE SKY TO BECOME THE MOON.

AND, AS FOR COATLICUE, SHE IS A GODDESS AND IS, THEREFORE, IMMORTAL AND COULD NOT DIE. IN LATER MYTHS, SHE CAN BE FOUND WAITING...IMPATIENTLY FOR HER SON. IN MEXICO, SHE HAS BECOME THE PATRON OF WOMEN WHO DIE IN CHILDBIRTH.

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Nergal  

Posted by Stella Clark

Nergal Cover
The name Nergal, Nirgal, or Nirgali refers to a deity in Babylon with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. Nergal is mentioned in the Hebrew bible as the deity of the city of Cuth (Cuthah): "And the men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth, and the men of Cuth made Nergal". He is the son of Enlil and Ninlil.

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Mami Wata  

Posted by Stella Clark

Mami Wata Cover
Mami Wata is venerated in West, Central, Southern Africa, and in the African diaspora in the Caribbean and parts of North and South America. Mami Wata spirits are usually female, but are sometimes male.

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