Based on its facial features, the stone sculpture of a seated writer found within the House of the Scribes in Copan is often described as a howler monkey. However, it are the two large statues of simian figures shaking rattles (see fig. ), found on both sides of the 'Reviewing Stand' of Copan's temple 11, that approach much more closely the standard representation of this animal in Maya art and in Long Count inscriptions (including the snakes in the corners of the mouth). Variously described as wind gods and comedians, these statues may actually represent howler monkeys in their quality of musicians. A ceramic incense burner modelled like a howler monkey scribe has been found at Post-classic Mayapan. At the time of the Spanish Invasions, the howler monkeys continued to be venerated, although the role they played in mythological narratives diverged. Bartolom'e de las Casas stated that in the Alta Verapaz, Hun-Ahan (probably 'One-Woodcarver') and Hun-Cheven (Hun-Chowen in the Popol Vuh) were counted among the thirteen sons of the upper god, and were celebrated as cosmogonic creator deities.
Among the Quich'e Mayas, they were less positively valued: According to the Popol Vuh, Hun-Chowen and Hun-Batz 'One-Howler Monkey' (both artists and musicians) clashed with their stepbrothers, the Maya Hero Twins, a conflict which led to their humiliating transformation into monkeys. In the mantic calendar, Howler Monkey (Batz), corresponding to Spider Monkey (Ozomatli) in the Aztec system, denotes the 11th day, which is associated with the arts. In the Long Count, the Howler Monkey can personify the day-unit, which connects him to the priestly arts of calendrical reckoning and divination, as well as to ritualistic and historical knowledge.
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